It is a very common question in the world of retirement planning: Can you withdraw money from your 401(k) before you actually retire? The simple answer, is yes, you always have the right to withdraw some or all contributions and their earnings from your 401(k) and every withdrawal will be subject to income taxes. The long answer is that it’s not always that simple and any taxes or penalties you might owe on that withdrawal will depend primarily on your age.
Below is a summary of different ways to withdraw money from your 401(k) plan prior to retirement:
Withdrawing Money From a 401(k) Before Age 59-1/2
While you have the right to access your 401(k) contributions and their earnings at any time, if you make a withdrawal before age 59-1/2, you are likely to face some steep penalties.
First and foremost, it is important to recognize that any withdrawal made from your 401(k) with be treated as taxable income and subject to income taxes in the year in which you made the withdrawal. But in addition to the income taxes that will be owed, you will also be subject to an additional 10% early distribution penalty.
For some taxpayers, these taxes and penalties can add up and nearly cut the value of your original withdrawal in half.
If you are looking to transfer or rollover your 401(k) assets to another qualified account, you can avoid these taxes and penalties with a proper trustee-to-trustee transfer. If you’re looking to access your 401(k) assets because of financial hardship or for a large purchase like a down payment on a house, you could consider a 401(k) loan, but you should try to avoid a taxable withdrawal at all costs.
Last, but not least, there are circumstances under which you can make a penalty-free taxable withdrawal from your 401(k) before reaching age 59-1/2:
- You pass away and the account balance is withdrawn for your beneficiary
- You become disabled
- Your unreimbursed medical expenses exceed 7.5% of your adjusted gross income
- You begin “substantially equal periodic” withdrawals
- Your withdrawal is a result of a Qualified Domestic Relations Order (QDRO)
- You are at least 55 years old and have terminated employment1
Withdrawal From 401(k) After Age 59-1/2
In the eyes of the IRS, age 59-1/2 is the magic number when it comes to avoiding the penalties associated with early 401(k) withdrawals. At age 59-1/2, you can make penalty-free withdrawals from 401(k) assets that have been rolled over into a traditional IRA.2
If your funds are still in the 401(k) plan and you are retired, you can also make a withdrawal penalty-free. If you reach age 59-1/2 and are still working, however, the rules may change slightly.
At age 59-1/2 or older, you can generally access 401(k) assets penalty-free from a former employer’s plan even if you are still working. But if you reach age 59-1/2 and are still working at the company with whom you have your 401(k) assets, you will have to check with the plan administrator about the specific rules of your plan.
Your plan may offer what is called an “in-service” withdrawal that will allow you to access your 401(k) assets penalty-free, but many plans do not offer this option. Remember, even if the withdrawal isn’t penalized, it will be subject to income taxes.3
Withdrawal From 401(k) After Age 72
While you can generally access your 401(k) assets penalty-free starting at age 59-1/2, many people continue to work well past that age and, therefore, delay their withdrawals allowing the assets to continue to grow tax-deferred. By age 72, however, the IRS will begin to mandate that you make withdrawals known as required minimum distributions (RMDs).4 If your plan has made the proper election, those working at age 72 or beyond who are owners of 5% or more of the business may defer taking their RMDs from their employer’s plan while still working. This only applies to the 401(k) of their current employer; RMDs for all other retirement accounts will still need to be taken.
One exception to this rule is that employees who own more than 5% of the company sponsoring the plan still have to begin taking distributions from a 401(k) plan at age 72.
A solid retirement plan requires the examination of all available opportunities to use your retirement savings accounts to meet important life goals. It is important to understand how and when you may access your retirement savings in a 401(k) plan prior to your full retirement.
Just make sure you fully understand the income tax implications of any withdrawal decisions. Taking money out of a 401(k) during your working years could potentially push you into a higher tax bracket and reduce your retirement nest egg available for the future.